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October 30, 2020

Through the use of a foam roller or a similar device, myofascial release relieves tension and improves flexibility in the fascia (a thin casing of connective tissue that surrounds and holds every organ, blood vessel, bone, nerve fiber and muscle in place) and underlying muscle. Small, continuous back-and-forth movements are performed over an area of 2 to 6 inches for 30 to 60 seconds. The individual’s pain tolerance will determine the amount of pressure applied to the target area.

Superficial Back Line Downward Facing Dog

The superficial back line (SBL) runs from the bottom of the toes, around the heels, up the backside of the body, and terminates at the frontal ridge of the eyebrows. The SBL keeps the body in a standing position and functions in the movement to extend the hip and spine and to flex the knee and ankle. The downward-facing dog helps lengthen this line.

How to Perform: Assume an all-fours position, with the hands shoulder-width and the knees hip-distance apart. Curl the toes underneath and lift the hips into the air. Relax the heels, chest, head, and jaw. Roll the shoulders away from the ears and press the palms flat into the mat.

Superficial Front Line Camel Pose

The superficial front line (SFL) includes both sides of the body and connects the tops of the feet to the skull. Muscles include anterior areas of the shins, quadriceps, rectus abdominis, sternal fascia, and the sternocleidomastoid muscle, as well as the skulls galea aponeurotica. The SFL runs in two sections from toes to pelvis and pelvis to head. The SFL in movement flexes the trunk and hips, knee extension, and dorsiflexion. It also supports the skeletal regions that extend forward from the line of gravity including the ribcage, pelvis, and head. The camel pose supports the lengthening between the quadriceps and the jawline.

How to Perform: Sit tall on the shins, which should be positioned hip-distance apart. Place the hands on the back of the pelvis. Imagine the thighbones moving forward first, and then the pelvis moving forward. Arch the back and lift the ribcage upward. If possible, reach the hands toward the calves or ankles. Roll the shoulders away from the ears and lift the chin upward, allowing the jaw and head to relax.

Lateral Line Extended Side Angle Pose

The lateral line (LL) travels up each side of the body from the medial and lateral midpoints of the foot, around the fibular malleolus, and up the lateral leg and trunk to the skulls mastoid process. In movement, the LL creates lateral flexion and functions as a brake to lateral and rotational movements. The side-angle pose is a position that deeply lengthens the side of the body and leg.

How to Perform: Stand with feet 3.5 to 4 feet apart. Turn the right toes forward and kick the left heel out at a 45-degree angle. Lift the arms to shoulder height and bend the right knee to 90 degrees. Reach the right arm to the floor or a block, parallel to the shin. Reach the left arm forward, bringing the biceps above the ear.

Superficial Arm Front Line Seated Gate Pose

The superficial front arm line initiates at the sternum, clavicle, and rib cage at the origins of the pectoralis major. It runs through the biceps groove, including the insertion point of the latissimus dorsi and medial bicipital groove. It connects through the medial intermuscular septum, along the humerus and carpal tunnel, and through the insertion of the palmar surface of the fingers.

How to Perform: Sit on the floor and extend both legs into a position. Place the right foot into the left inner thigh. Slide the left arm along the left leg and anchor the hand on the calf or foot. Keep the chest forward and reach the right hand over the right shoulder. Slightly retract the scapulars and lift the chest slightly to feel a stretch from the chest to the palms.

Spiral Line Single-leg Revolved Belly Pose

The complex spiral line (SL) contains three cardinal lines. It loops around the trunk in a helix with another loop in the legs, from the hip to the arch and back again. The SL joins on the side of the skull, across the back’s midline to the opposite shoulder, across the anterior torso to the same side of the hip, knee, and arch, and returns up the back to the head. The SL creates and facilitates spiral rotations and compensates for deeper rotations in the spine and pelvic core. The single-leg revolved belly pose increases the depth of a spinal twist while lengthening the lateral leg.

How to Perform: Lie face up on the ground and place the feet on the floor. Lower the knees to the left and extend the top (right) leg. With the left hand, reach for the knee or foot to hold. Position the right arm on the floor, level with the shoulder. Use a yoga strap to assist and deepen the pose, if desired.

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

This type of stretching capitalizes on the use of autogenic and reciprocal inhibition, and includes three types of techniques:

- Hold-relax
- Perform a passive 10-second pre-stretch.
- Hold and resist force applied by the fitness professional, causing an isometric contraction in the target muscle group, for six seconds.
- Relax the muscle group and allow a passive stretch; hold for 30 seconds to increase range of motion (ROM).
- There should be a greater stretch during this final phase due to autogenic inhibition.
- Contract-relax
- Perform a passive 10-second pre-stretch.
- The fitness professional applies resistance, counteracting the client’s force of concentric contraction of the target muscle group, without completely restricting the joint through its ROM.
- Relax the muscle group and allow a passive stretch; hold for 30 seconds to increase ROM.
- There should be a greater stretch during this final phase due to autogenic inhibition.
- Hold-relax with agonist contraction
- This technique is similar to the Hold-relax technique but differs for the final stretch.
- Relax the muscle group and allow a passive stretch. Concentrically contract the opposing muscle group of the target muscle group that is being stretched; hold for 30 seconds to increase ROM.
- There should be a greater stretch during this final phase due to reciprocal and autogenic inhibition.


- Some athletes use kinesiology taping to help them achieve peak performance and protect against injury when they’re competing in special events. You should always consult with a physical therapist who is trained in the proper application of kinesiology tape before you try to put it on yourself.

- A physical therapist will show you how to apply the tape in the pattern that will help your specific problem. Tape can be applied in an X, Y, I, or fan pattern, depending on your goals.

- X application is for : muscle change depending on movement of the area.

- Y application for : to surround the target muscle, to facilitate muscle stimuli. *keep two inches longer than the target muscle.

- I application for : acute injuries instead of y application, pain and oedema, alignment correction.